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Se även / See also: Ordlista militära termer /
Dictionary military terms
och / and Ordlista gamla sjukdomsnamn / Dictionary - Names of diseases in earlier times
eller / or Ordlista över ortnamn / Dictionary - Names of Places
|Adel||Noble (of noble birth) / The nobility|
|Amiralitetet||The Admiralty (Navy)|
|Ana (förfader)||Ancestor (forefather) / a person in an ancestor chart|
|Anor (förfäder)||Ancestors (forefathers) / persons in an ancestor chart|
|Ansedel / personakt||A personal record containing biographical data about an ancestor|
A chart where a specific person forms the starting point for a genealogical study of this persons ancestors.
A married couple normally have eight ancestors in the second generation, four on each side. However if two cousins marry they will partly have jointly grandparents. We have “lost” 2 persons in the second generation (6 instead of 8). This kind of situation in an ancestor chart is called “anförlust” in Swedish.
|Arvsskifte||Distribution of an inherited estate|
|Begravning||Burial / funeral|
|Begravd i stillhet / begravd i tysthet||
”Begravd i stillhet” or ”begravd i tysthet” means that it was a quiet funeral with only the closest family present.
A department called Bergskollegium handled the Government control of the mining industry. This department has had different names throughout the centuries but the name Bergskollegium was used from 1744.
Mine-inspector. A bergmästare was appointed by the government and subordinated the Bergskollegium.
bergmästare’s job was to supervise the mining operations within his
jurisdiction on behalf of the government. More exactly, among a
Bergmästare’s duties was inspections and examinations the mines and the
mining industry, evaluation of mines, supervision of government forests
and supervision subordinated mining clerks, supervise that mining
regulations were followed etc.
Among his responsibilities was also to judge in disputes regarding mining matters in a special court of law called Bergstinget (Mining court of law). In the court the bergmästare had 7 assistants called nämndemän (A "nämndeman" is an appointed layman in a court of law – a lay assessor).
The criminal cases could vary, for example cheating with weighing, payments, fractions between miners, or thefts. Larger cases like manslaughter or arguments about proprietorship to forests used by the mines etc was handled by the Häradsrätt – the ordinary district court of law in the countryside.
A Bergsting session was held once a year, normally in May or June and was announced in the churches at the latest 10 weeks prior to the beginning of a Bergsting.
The special courts of law the Bergsting represented were abolished in 1851. From then the mining cases were handled by the ordinary courts of law.
Sweden was subdivided into 11 Bergmästardömen, and from the middle of the 18th century 12 bergmästardömen.
A bergmästardöme was a territorial area (jurisdiction) and the term itself could be translated into mine-inspector’s jurisdiction.
|Beväring||Conscript (soldier), recruit|
|Bisittare||Assessor, member of a district court of law|
|Bouppteckning||Estate inventory proceeding|
|Bouppteckningsdokument||Probate records / estate inventory|
|Bruk (ex: järnbruk eller papperbruk)||Mill/works, for example ironworks or paper mill|
|Bruksarbetare||Laborer at a mill/factory/works.
Ironworks: ironworker / foundryman
Paper mill: millman
Foundry (ironworks) proprietor
(Paper) mill owner
|Båtsman (motsv soldat)||Seaman/deck hand (Navy personal provided by the Allotment System)|
|Det stora nordiska kriget||The Great Nordic War (1700 - 1721)|
|Dombok||Court records (court of law)|
|Domprost||Cathedral Dean (church)|
|Domsaga||The territorial district of a Häradsrätt.|
|Domstol||Court of law|
|Dopvittne||Sponsor / Godparent|
Dragoon: Dragoon was formerly mounted infantry. They traveled on horseback
to the battlefield but they fought as foot soldiers. As mounted infantry
they were very mobile units. It happened that dragoons fought as cavalry in
battles. However, this was a type of warfare they weren't trained for and
could end up in disaster. During the 18th century the dragoons
were more and more used as cavalry and therefore also trained as cavalry.
Finally it was only the name that separated them from other cavalry. During
the 19th century dragoons was a term for heavy cavalry.
|Egendom||Property / estate|
|Egendomsägare||Owner of a property / estate.
(An older Swedish spelling is: Egendomsegare)
|Eriksgata||An Eriksgata was a King’s first tour of the country after being crowned|
|Faddrar (vid dop)||Witnesses (at baptism)|
|Farbror||Uncle (father's brother)|
|Farfar||Grandfather (father's fathers or paternal grandfather)|
|Farfars far||Great-grandfather (on the father's side - paternal)|
|Farmor||Grandmother (father's mother or paternal grandmother)|
|Faster||Aunt (father's sister)|
A "filer" was a craftsman working for example in a workshop filing off
or smoothing parts made of steel or iron with a file. Casting shops weren’t
able to cast parts with 100% precision in the past. In order to fit different
parts together filers were needed to file off or smooth the parts in order to
achieve the required precision.
There were also other types of filers; for example, filers sharpening sawblades.
|Fjärdingsman||Parish constable (UK) /
Sheriff's Deputy (US)
A fjärdingsman was a deputy and didn't have the right to act in police matters on his own. He always had to act on orders by the länsman. See also länsman.
|Flottan (örloggsflottan)||The Navy|
|Flottare||Floater / Log driver.
Log driving or floating was a way of conveying timber or logs from the locale of lumbering to sawmills and pulp mills downstream using the current of a river. The people employed to do this were called floaters or log drivers.
|Flottning||Conveying timber in floats, log driving|
|Flytta||Move. "Flytta från" = move from. "Flytta till" = Move to.|
|Födelsebevis, födelseattest||Birth certificate|
|Födelseort||Place of birth|
|Församling/socken||Parish. See socken|
|Generaldirektör||Agency Director (US)|
|Gesällprov||Qualifying piece of work for an apprentice to become a journeyman in a guild|
|Gift (som i civilstatus)||Married|
|Gods (slott etc)||Estate, Manor|
|Godsägare||Landed proprietor, landowner, estate owner, land lord|
|Grenadjär||A form of infantryman (Grenadier)|
|Greve/Grevinna||Count (Earl in the UK) / Countess|
|Grosshandlare||Wholesale dealer, wholesaler|
|Gruva (järngruva)||Mine (iron mine)|
|Hammarsmedsämbetet (Skrå)||The guild for hammersmiths|
|Hantverkare||Craftsmen / artisan|
|Hembygdsgård||Local history center (US) / Village hall (UK) / Community centre|
|Hemmansägare||Farmer, freeholder, owner of a homestead|
|Herrgård||Country estate, Manor|
|Hovrätt||Circuit court of appeal (Regional court)|
|Hovrättsråd||Judge of appeal|
|Husförhörslängd||Clerical survey or household examination roll|
|Hytta (järnbruk)||Smelting house|
|Håll och stygn||Pneumonia|
|Härad||Civil district within a court, it's jurisdiction.|
|Häradsdomare||A honorary title of the oldest nämndeman in a häradsrätt (district court of law)|
|Häradsrätt||District court of law in
the countryside. This court's jurisdiction
A “häradshövding” was the chairman of a “häradsrätt”. The “häradsrätt” was manned by the “häradshövding” and a board of 12 lay members called “nämndemän”. Since they were 12 members they were also called “tolvmän” (tolv = twelv).
The häradsrätt convened three times per year, the so-called ”lagtima ting” (the regular court sessions) in spring, summer and fall. Each court session could last for one or more days depending on the number of cases they had to handle. For urgent matters there was also “urtima ting“ (extra court sessions).
The Häradsrätt was replaced by the Tingsrätt in 1971.
Courts in the cities were called Rådhusrätt.
|Indelningsverket (militära)||Allottment system (the old system of organizing and financing the Swedish armed forces)|
|Järnbruk||Ironworks / Iron foundry|
|Kavalleri / rytteri||Cavalry|
|Klart skepp (mil)||General quarters (naval term)|
|Komminister/kaplan||Assistant parish minister, assistant vicar (rector) (Church)|
|Kontrakt/Prosteri (kyrkan)||Rural deanery (Church)|
|Kontraktsprost||Rural Dean (Church)|
|Krigsarkivet||Swedish Military Record Office /
|Krigsfånge||Prisoner of war|
|Krigsmakten||The armed forces|
|Kronofogde||County Police Commissioner (UK) /
Enforcement Officer (US)
|Kyrkböcker||Church records / Parish register|
|Kyrkoherde||Parish minister in Church of Sweden - a Lutheran Church. Vicar (UK), parish priest, rector, reverend, pastor|
|Källa (informationskälla)||Source of information|
|Kärande (i domstol)||Plaintiff (in legal proceedings)|
|Kön (man/kvinna)||Sex (male/female)|
|Lagman||Chief judge in court of law|
|Landsfiskal||District police superintendent (and public prosecutor)|
|Linjeskepp||Ships of the line|
|Län||County. The Swedish County (Län) have a role
more similar to the State in the USA compared to the role of the US County.
However the Swedish Counties doesn't have the independence of the States in
The US County is better compared to the Swedish “Kommun” (Municipality) rather then to the Swedish county (län).
|Länsman||Chief Constable (UK) /
A länsman was a local police officer and had the authority to act as a police and proceed with police work. See also "fjärdningsman" (deputy).
|Lönskaläge||Illicit relations between unmarried persons|
"Mantal" was a property tax code and every farm who had to pay taxes was assigned a "mantal". In the beginning (1600’s) one "mantal" meant a farm with a annual yield large enough to support the farmer's family and their farm hands.
In the forest provinces in
northern Sweden a farm of 1 "mantal" had to be big to produce a yield
corresponding to 1 "mantal". In the plains in southern Sweden, with a
better climate and a richer soil, a farm could be a lot smaller than in
the north and still produce a yield of 1 "mantal". So “mantal” is not a
value for the size of the farm but rather it’s capability of yielding a
good crop. Farms with the same “mantal” paid the same amount of tax.
|Mantalsskriven||Registred for tax/census purposes|
|Medborgerligt förtroende||[one's] civil (civic) rights|
|Medelpad||Province of Medelpad|
|Morbror||Uncle (mother's brother)|
|Morfar||Grandfather (mother's fathers or maternal grandfather)|
|Morfars far||Great-grandfather (on the mother's side)|
|Mormor||Grandmother (mother's mother or maternal grandmother)|
|Moster||Aunt (mother's sister)|
|Måg||Son in law|
|Mästarbrev||A craftsmans diploma or certificate|
|Mönstring (mil.)||Muster, inspection, review, enrollment|
|Nattvard||The Holy Communion|
|Nämndeman||Courts in Sweden don't have a system with
juries. Instead there are a judge and a number of "nämndemän". The
"nämdemän" are appointed laymen. They are not chosen by random, you have to
apply and be approved by the local council / county council (a position of
trust). It is not a profession but something that's done beside the
nämndeman's ordinary profession.
Unlike a juryman the "nämndeman" actually is a member of the court and take an active part in the trial. Together with the judge they set the sentence. They can ask questions to the prosecuted.
In courts of appeal there are more professional lawmen (jurists) then "nämndemän". However, in district courts and city courts the "nämndemän" are in majority.
|Ogift||Unmarried / single|
|Okänd fader||Father unknown|
|Orlovssedel||In former days employees weren’t normally employed until further notice but for 1 year at a time. That is, they were signed up for a 12 months period at a time. At the end of the 12 months period the employer could renew the contract for another 12 months. During the 12 month employment period an employee could not leave his position to take up another job. The only time he could take up another employment was at the end of the 12 month employment period. That’s why the employee needed a certificate from his former employer stating that he was free to take another job. This certificate was called orlovssedel. The orlovssedel also contained some sort of “service record” and also information if he was in debt to his former employer.|
|Oäkta barn||Illegitimate child|
|Poliskonstapel||Police constable / Police officer / Patrolman|
|Proband||Proband or subject
The person you start with when you do genealogical table where you start with a specific person and do a genealogical research backward in time tracing this person's ancestors.
|Profoss||Provost / Flogmaster (military)|
|Prost||Rural Dean (church)|
|Prosteri/Kontrakt (kyrkan)||Rural deanery (church)|
|Präst||Clergyman, Vicar (UK), Parish Minister. Priest (catholic).
|Prästgård||Vicarage (UK), parsonage (US), rectory, minister's house|
|Rakt nedstigande led (släktskap)||A lineal (direct) descendant of... (kinship)|
|Rakt uppstigande led (släktskap)||In lineal (the direct line of) ascent (kinship)|
|Residensstad||County seat or County capital|
|Riddarhuset||The House of Nobility|
|Riksarkivet||The National Archive|
|Riksdag||The Swedish Parliament|
|Riksdagshuset||The Riksdag (Parliament) building|
|Riksdagsman/Riksdagsledamot||Member of the Swedish Riksdag (Parliament)|
|Rådhusrätt||City courts of law before 1971
when they were replaced by the Tingsrätt. It was
the borgmästare (mayor / chief magistrate) that was the chariman (judge) of
Courts in the countryside were called Häradsrätt.
|Rådman||District court judge|
äldre benämning på en tjänsteman som hade hand om en förvaltningsenhets ekonomi och förestod dess kontor
|Rättare||Farm foreman (larger farms, manors etc)|
|Rättegång||Legal proceedings in a court of law|
|SCB utdragen||Civil registration|
|Självmördare / Självspillning||A person who has committed
People who had committed suicide (or been executed) weren’t allowed to be buried at the church cemetery (consecrated earth). Instead they were to be buried by the “bödel” (executioner/hangman) somewhere else. If the suicide was committed due to mental derangement, someone other than the executioner was allowed to bury the dead, however not at the church cemetery.
From 1864 the Church agreed to bury suicides at the cemetery, but the funeral ceremony had to be "i stillhet" (quiet). However, from 1894 this type of burial could be performed the same as any other burial.
”Begravd i stillhet” or ”begravd i tyshet” meant in those days that there was no bell ringing at the funeral (quiet funeral). A funeral without bell ringing was considered to be degrading.
|Skarprättare, bödel||Executioner, hangman|
|Skatt (ex: inkomstskatt)||Tax|
|Skattefrihet||Exemption from land dues to the crown|
|Skogsvaktare||Forest ranger or forester|
|Släkten Högman||The Högman Family|
|Släktforskningslitteratur||Literature on Genealogy|
|Småbrukare (mindre jordbruk) / Lantbrukare||Small farmer / Peasant|
|Smed / Mästersven||Smith, after 4 years as an apprentice, i.e. journeyman)|
|Smedsdräng||Apprentice smith, smith's henchman|
A geographical area served by a church, an ecclesiastical unit.
In other words a parish
(the church socken).
Prior to 1862 all parishes were referred to as “socken” in Swedish. However, after 1862 they are called “församling”. So, socken = församling = parish.
|Socken (lokalt styre)||
The worldly (secular)
socken - A geographical area for local administration.
Before 1862, the church "socken" and the administrative "socken" encompassed the same territorial area. However, the worldly "socken" was replaced by an administrative subdivision called "kommun" (municipality) in that year.
|Sockenstämma||Local administration council|
|Spinnsidan (av en släkt)||The distaff side (of a family)|
|Stad||City or town|
|Stadsfiskal (åklagare)||Public prosecutor|
|Stamfar||First ancestor / progenitor / forefather
The person you start with when you do a pedigree (descendant chart) where you start with a specific person and do a genealogical research forward in time tracing this person's descendants.
|Stamtavla||Pedigree / Descendent chart
A chart where a specific person forms the starting point (progenitor/ancestor) for a genealogical study of this persons descendants.
|Statare||Agricultural labourer receiving allowance (payment) in kind|
|Statssekreterare||Under-secretary of State|
|Sterbhus||Estate of a deceased person|
|Stånghammare||Tilthammer / Helve hammer|
|Stämmning (i domstol)||Summons / subpoena (legal)|
|Svarande (i domstol)||Defendant (in legal proceedings)|
|Svenska kyrkan||Church of Sweden|
|Svensk adel||Swedish nobility|
|Svenska stormaktstiden||The Swedish Great Power period|
|Sveriges Riksdag||The Swedish Parliament|
|Svärdsidan (av en släkt)||The male line (of a family)|
|Syskon||Sibling / Brothers and sisters|
|Testamente||Will ( last will and testament)|
|Tingsrätt /Tíng||District court of law. Replace the older Häradsrätt as well as the Rådhusrätt in 1971.|
|Torp||Crofter's holding or cottage/croft.
See also "torpare" below.
|Torpare||Crofter, tenant farmer.
The tenant had to do a certain number of a full days' work per year on the landowner's land or estate as a payment for the tenancy. In British English the term is crofter but in the USA a "torpare" is best compared with a renter farmer.
|Trolovad||Engaged to be married|
|Vapensköld||Coat of arms (escutcheon)|
|Välborne / Högvälborne||the Honorable xxxx / the
The title "the Honorable" was carried by younger sons of counts (earls in the UK) and by children of barons plus by ladies-in-waiting (hovdamer), members of the Supreme Court (högsta domstolen ) and by certain government officials etc.
The title "the Right Honorable" was carried by counts (earls in the UK) and barons etc.
In other words, born of noble family.
|Värnplikt||National service (mil.)|
|Värnpliktig||A person liable for military service, a military (national) serviceman, conscript. A draftee.|
|Värvning (mil.)||Enrolment, enlistment|
|Åbo||Tenant farmer with a conditional, inherited lease|
|Åklagare||Public Prosecutor / District attorney|
|Ägare||Owner / proprietor
(An older Swedish spelling is: Egare).
|Ättling||Descendant / a person in a pedigree|
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Copyright © Hans Högman, granskat 2016-12-22 09:51